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Self-referenced Spectral Interferometry for Single-shot Characterization of Ultrashort Free-electron Laser Pulses
preprintposted on 2023-04-18, 16:00 authored by Yaozong Xiao, Hao Sun, Bo Liu, Zhentang Zhao, Chao Feng
Attosecond x-ray pulse with known spectro-temporal information is an essential tool for the investigation of ultrafast electron dynamics in quantum systems. Ultrafast free-electron lasers (FELs) have the unique advantage on unprecedented high-intensity at x-ray wavelengths. However, no suitable method has been established so far for the spectro-temporal characterization of these ultrashort x-ray pulses. In this letter, a simple method has been proposed based on self-referenced spectral interferometry for reconstructing ultrashort FEL pulses both in temporal and spectral domains. We have demonstrated that the proposed method is reliable to reconstruct the temporal profile and phase of attosecond x-ray FEL pulses with an error of only a few-percent-level. Moreover, the first proof-of-principle experiment has been performed to achieve single-shot spectro-temporal characterization of ultrashort pulses from a high-gain FEL. The precision of the proposed method will be enhanced with the decrease of the pulse duration, paving a new way for complete attosecond pulse characterization at x-ray FELs.