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Shortening X-ray Pulse Duration via Saturable Absorption

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posted on 2023-01-11, 22:10 authored by Ichiro Inoue, Yuichi Inubushi, Taito Osaka, Jumpei Yamada, Kenji Tamasaku, Hitoki Yoneda, Makina Yabashi
To shorten the duration of x-ray pulses, we present a nonlinear optical technique using atoms with core-hole vacancies (core-hole atoms) generated by inner-shell photoionization. The weak Coulomb screening in the core-hole atoms results in decreased absorption at photon energies immediately above the absorption edge. By employing this phenomenon, referred to as saturable absorption, we successfully reduce the duration of x-ray free-electron laser pulses (photon energy: 9.000 keV, duration: 6-7 fs, fluence: 2.0-3.5$\times$10$^5$ J/cm$^2$) by $\sim$35%. This finding that core-hole atoms are applicable to nonlinear x-ray optics is an essential stepping stone for extending nonlinear technologies commonplace at optical wavelengths to the hard x-ray region.

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