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Simultaneous Brillouin and piezoelectric coupling to a high-frequency bulk acoustic resonator

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Version 2 2023-02-02, 17:00
Version 1 2023-01-12, 16:02
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posted on 2023-02-02, 17:00 authored by Taekwan Yoon, David Mason, Vijay Jain, Yiwen Chu, Prashanta Kharel, William H. Renninger, Liam Collins, Luigi Frunzio, Robert J Schoelkopf, Peter T Rakich
Bulk acoustic resonators support robust, long-lived mechanical modes, capable of coupling to various quantum systems. In separate works, such devices have achieved strong coupling to both superconducting qubits, via piezoelectricity, and optical cavities, via Brillouin interactions. In this work, we present a novel hybrid microwave/optical platform capable of coupling to bulk acoustic waves through cavity-enhanced piezoelectric and photoelastic interactions. The modular, tunable system achieves fully resonant and well-mode-matched interactions between a 3D microwave cavity, a high-frequency bulk acoustic resonator, and a Fabry Perot cavity. We realize this piezo-Brillouin interaction in x-cut quartz, demonstrating the potential for strong optomechanical interactions and high cooperativity using optical cavity enhancement. We further show how this device functions as a bidirectional electro-opto-mechanical transducer, with quantum efficiency exceeding $10^{-8}$, and a feasible path towards unity conversion efficiency. The high optical sensitivity and ability to apply large resonant microwave field in this system also offers a new tool for probing anomalous electromechanical couplings, which we demonstrate by investigating (nominally-centrosymmetric) CaF$_2$ and revealing a parasitic piezoelectricity of 83 am/V. Such studies are an important topic for emerging quantum technologies, and highlight the versatility of this new hybrid platform.

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