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Space-time coupling of the carrier-envelope phase in ultrafast optical pulses
preprintposted on 2023-01-12, 14:24 authored by Ido Attia, Eugene Frumker
The carrier-envelope phase (CEP) plays an increasingly important role in precise frequency comb spectroscopy, all-optical atomic clocks, quantum science and technology, astronomy, space-borne-metrology, and strong-field science. Hitherto, it has been essentially assumed that CEP is strictly a temporal phenomenon. Here we introduce an approach for space-time calculation of the CEP in the spatially defined region of interest. We find a significant variation of CEP in the focal volume of refracting focusing elements and accurately calculate its value. We discuss the implications and importance of this finding. Our method is particularly suitable for application to complex, real-world, optical systems thereby making it especially useful to applications in research labs as well as in the engineering of innovative designs that rely on the CEP.