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Spectral and statistical properties of high-gain parametric down-conversion
preprintposted on 2023-11-30, 20:14 authored by Kirill Spasibko
Parametric down-conversion (PDC) is mostly known in the low-gain (spontaneous) regime, in which the correlated photon pairs are produced. Spontaneous PDC (SPDC) plays a very important role for quantum optics as a variety of quantum states is produced via SPDC. In the high-gain case PDC leads to generation of bright states having up to hundreds mW mean power. With such states almost any nonlinear optical interaction or light-matter interaction becomes more efficient. Even being macroscopically bright, the produced states maintain nonclassical properties as, for example, the fluctuations of electric field quadratures are squeezed below the shot-noise level. The high-gain PDC could be used not only in the same applications as SPDC, it also can provide new ones. Apart from that the high-gain PDC has many remarkable spectral and statistical properties, which are in the focus of this work. The description starts from the PDC generation in normal and anomalous group velocity dispersion ranges. The spectrum and mode content of high-gain PDC is considered as well as their change with the parametric gain are demonstrated. Then, there are the interference effects emerging from the PDC correlations presented, namely the macroscopic analogue of the Hong-Ou-Mandel interference. In addition, it is shown how spatial and temporal walk-off matching could be used for the generation of giant narrowband twin beams. Finally, the statistical properties of high-gain PDC are reviewed as well as their use for multiphoton effects is demonstrated. Photon-number fluctuations of PDC are studied via normalized correlation functions and probability distributions. These fluctuations enhance the generation efficiency for multiphoton effects by orders of magnitude and lead to tremendously fluctuating light described by heavy-tailed photon-number probability distributions.