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Tackling Multimodal Device Distributions in Inverse Photonic Design using Invertible Neural Networks

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posted on 2023-01-12, 16:09 authored by Michel Frising, Jorge Bravo-Abad, Ferry Prins
Inverse design, the process of matching a device or process parameters to exhibit a desired performance, is applied in many disciplines ranging from material design over chemical processes and to engineering. Machine learning has emerged as a promising approach to overcome current limitations imposed by the dimensionality of the parameter space and multimodal parameter distributions. Most traditional optimization routines assume an invertible one-to-one mapping between the design parameters and the target performance. However, comparable or even identical performance may be realized by different designs, yielding a multimodal distribution of possible solutions to the inverse design problem which confuses the optimization algorithm. Here, we show how a generative modeling approach based on invertible neural networks can provide the full distribution of possible solutions to the inverse design problem and resolve the ambiguity of nanodevice inverse design problems featuring multimodal distributions. We implement a Conditional Invertible Neural Network (cINN) and apply it to a proof-of-principle nanophotonic problem, consisting in tailoring the transmission spectrum of a metallic film milled by subwavelength indentations. We compare our approach with the commonly used conditional Variational Autoencoder (cVAE) framework and show the superior flexibility and accuracy of the proposed cINNs when dealing with multimodal device distributions. Our work shows that invertible neural networks provide a valuable and versatile toolkit for advancing inverse design in nanoscience and nanotechnology.



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