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Theory of x-ray scattering from laser-driven electronic systems
preprintposted on 2023-11-29, 05:02 authored by Daria Popova-Gorelova, David A. Reis, Robin Santra
We describe, within the framework of quantum electrodynamics, an interaction between a non-resonant hard x-ray pulse and an electronic system in the presence of a temporally periodic laser field driving electron dynamics in this system. We apply Floquet theory to describe the laser-driven electronic system, and then obtain the scattering probability of an arbitrary nonresonant x-ray pulse from such a system employing the density-matrix formalism. We show that the scattering probability can be connected to the time-dependent electron density of the driven electronic system only under certain conditions, in particular, if the bandwidth of the probe x-ray pulse is sufficiently narrow to spectroscopically resolve transitions to different final states. A special focus is laid on application of the theory to laser-driven crystals in a strongly nonperturbative regime. We show how the time-dependent electron density of a crystal can be reconstructed from energy-resolved scattering patterns. This is illustrated by a calculation of a diffraction signal from a driven MgO crystal.