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Three types of discrete energy eigenvalues in complex PT-symmetric scattering potentials

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posted on 2023-11-30, 05:53 authored by Zafar Ahmed, Sachin Kumar, Dona Ghosh
For complex PT-symmetric scattering potentials (CPTSSPs) $V(x)= V_1 f_{even}(x) + iV_2 f_{odd}(x), f_{even}(\pm \infty) = 0 = f_{odd}(\pm \infty), V_1,V_2 \in \Re $, we show that complex $k$-poles of transmission amplitude $t(k)$ or zeros of $1/t(k)$ of the type $\pm k_1+ik_2, k_2\ge 0$ are physical which yield three types of discrete energy eigenvalues of the potential. These discrete energies are real negative, complex conjugate pair(s) of eigenvalues (CCPEs: ${\cal E}_n \pm i \gamma_n$) and real positive energy called spectral singularity (SS) at $E=E_*$ where the transmission and reflection co-efficient of $V(x)$ become infinite for a special critical value of $V_2=V_*$. Based on four analytically solvable and other numerically solved models, we conjecture that a parametrically fixed CPTSSP has at most one SS. When $V_1$ is fixed and $V_2$ is varied there may exist Kato's exceptional point(s) $(V_{EP})$ and critical values $V_{*m}, m=0,1,2,..$, so when $V_2$ crosses one of these special values a new CCPE is created. When $V_2$ equals a critical value $V_{*m}$ there exist one SS at $E=E_*$ along with $m$ or more number of CCPEs. Hence, this single positive energy $E_*$ is the upper (or rough upper) bound to the CCPEs: ${\cal E}_l \lessapprox E_*$, here ${\cal E}_l$ corresponds to the last of CCPEs. If $V(x)$ has Kato's exceptional points (EPs: $V_{EP1}

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