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# Tutorial: Macroscopic QED and vacuum forces

preprint

posted on 2023-01-12, 15:06 authored by S. A. R. HorsleyThis tutorial introduces the theory of macroscopic QED, where a Hamiltonian is found that represents the electromagnetic field interacting with a dispersive, dissipative material. Using a one dimensional theory as motivation, we build up the more cumbersome three dimensional theory. Then considering the extension of this theory to moving materials, where the material response changes due to both the Doppler effect and the mixing of electric and magnetic responses, it is shown that one gets the theory of quantum electromagnetic forces for free. We finish by applying macroscopic QED to reproduce Pendry's expression for the quantum friction force between sliding plates.