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Ultrafast intrinsic optical-to-electrical conversion dynamics in graphene photodetector
preprintposted on 2023-01-10, 02:29 authored by Katsumasa Yoshioka, Taro Wakamura, Masayuki Hashisaka, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Norio Kumada
Optical-to-electrical (O-E) conversion in graphene is a central phenomenon for realizing anticipated ultrafast and low-power-consumption information technologies. However, revealing its mechanism and intrinsic time scale require uncharted terahertz (THz) electronics and device architectures. Here, we succeeded in resolving O-E conversion processes in high-quality graphene by on-chip electrical readout of ultrafast photothermoelectric current. By suppressing the RC time constant using a resistive zinc oxide top gate, we constructed a gate-tunable graphene photodetector with a bandwidth of up to 220 GHz. By measuring nonlocal photocurrent dynamics, we found that the photocurrent extraction from the electrode is instantaneous without a measurable carrier transit time across several-micrometer-long graphene, following the Shockley-Ramo theorem. The time for photocurrent generation is exceptionally tunable from immediate to > 4 ps, and its origin is identified as Fermi-level-dependent intraband carrier-carrier scattering. Our results bridge the gap between ultrafast optical science and device engineering, accelerating ultrafast graphene optoelectronic applications.