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Wavelength-scale Optical Parametric Oscillators

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posted on 2023-11-30, 19:45 authored by Saman Jahani, Arkadev Roy, Alireza Marandi
Despite recent progress in nonlinear optics in wavelength-scale resonators, there are still open questions on the possibility of parametric oscillation in such resonators. We present a general approach to predict the behavior and estimate the oscillation threshold of multi-mode subwavelength and wavelength-scale optical parametric oscillators (OPOs). As an example, we propose an OPO based on Mie-type multipolar resonances, and we demonstrate that due to the low-Q nature of multipolar modes in wavelength-scale resonators, there is a nonlinear interaction between these modes. As a result, the OPO threshold, compared to the single-mode case, can be reduced by a factor that is significantly larger than the number of interacting modes. The multi-mode interaction can also lead to a phase transition manifested through a sudden change in the parametric gain as well as the oscillation threshold, which can be utilized for enhanced sensing. We establish an explicit connection between the second-harmonic generation efficiency and the OPO threshold. This allows us to estimate the OPO threshold based on measured or simulated second-harmonic generation in different classes of resonators, such as bound states in the continuum and inversely designed resonators. Our approach for analyzing and modeling miniaturized OPOs can open unprecedented opportunities for classical and quantum nonlinear photonics.

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